Association of serum copper level with fasting serum glucose in south Indian women with gestational diabetes mellitus
Background and Aim: Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is higher in southern region compared to other parts of India. Deficiency of certain trace elements has been indicated in the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, an inadequate supply of micronutrients in pregnancy may compromise the health and growth of both mother and fetus. Though copper and magnesium have an important role in glucose tolerance, they are not routinely checked in pregnancy. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the serum level of copper and magnesium in GDM patients and compare it with that of euglycemic pregnant women with similar gestational age. Methods: Serum was collected at 0, 1st and 2nd h from the blood drawn from pregnant ladies as part of their screening test for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), after obtaining informed consent. Serum copper and magnesium was estimated from fasting serum sample. Results: This prospective study showed a significant increase in copper level without significant change in magnesium level in GDM patients compared with euglycemic pregnant women. The increase in serum copper level was positively correlated with the rise in fasting serum glucose. Linear regression demonstrated association of serum copper level to fasting blood glucose (beta = 0.265, P = 0.017). Conclusion: Rise in serum copper level in GDM is linked to the level of fasting blood glucose. Therefore, women, who are diagnosed with GDM and found to have higher copper level, should be monitored carefully for ill‑effects of higher copper level as it is linked to their hyperglycemic status.