International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology <p><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></p> <p>The aim of International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology (IJCEP) is to publish quality research papers in Physiology that have clinical application in medicine or the papers with experimental evidences having future perspective of application in medicine. As Physiology is the mother-subject of all branches of medicine, the ‘Clinical Physiology’ component will include in addition to the research data in ‘Clinical Physiology’, the research papers from all branches of clinical medicine such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, endocrine disorders, neurological dysfunctions, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal disorders etc., explaining the pathophysiological basis of the diseases and the physiological basis of management and prevention of the diseases. The ‘Experimental Physiology’ component will include reports on all experimental physiology research and the experimental models of diseases that facilitate understanding the pathophysiologic processes and management of diseases. However, the works in ‘Applied Physiology’ or the works in ‘Basic Research in Physiology’ intending to have application in clinical physiology and medicine will be considered for publication in IJCEP. Also, ‘Preventive Physiology’ such as role of nutrition, relaxation therapy, yoga, exercises etc. in health promotion will be published in this journal.</p> <p><strong>Subjects Covered</strong></p> <p>Physiology (Basic, Experimental, Applied and Clinical), Clinical Medicine, Endocrinology, Neurophysiology, Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Gastrointestinal Physiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Physiology and Medicine, Clinical Biochemistry, Exercise Physiology, Nutrition, Sports Physiology and Medicine, Aviation Physiology and Medicine, Behavioural Physiology and Medicine, Reproductive Physiology and Medicine, Ophthalmic Physiology and Medicine, Physiology and Medicine related to ear, nose and throat, Orthopedic Physiology and Medicine, Pathophysiology of Lifestyle and Stress Disorders, Clinical Pharmacology, Physiology of Metabolism and Metabolic disorders and Physiology of Yoga.</p> EManuscript Technologies en-US International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology 2348-8832 Dietary Salt Intake Must be Restricted for Indians Irrespective of their Salt Preference and Sensitivity <p style="text-align: justify;">Excess dietary sodium (Na) or salt is associated with 17–30% of hypertension globally. Hypertension is one of the top ten risk factors for mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide. In India, hypertension contributes to about 10% mortalities and is responsible for 37% and 24% of stroke and CHD deaths, respectively.[1] Reports suggest that one in four in urban India and one in five in rural India among the adults have hypertension.[2] Excess dietary salt intake is an important modifiable risk factor for hypertension. Compared with those consuming ≥2 g Na/d, adults consuming &lt;2 g Na/d had a 3.5 mmHg lower mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 1.8 mmHg lower mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP).[3] Nevertheless, salt intake around the world ranges from 6.0 to 11.8 g/d, which is far in excess of the recommended levels. The WHO recommends a daily Na intake of &lt;2 g, or &lt;5 g salt/d, for adults.[4] The current salt intake among Indian adults is far higher than the recommended level.[5] Indians have been taking much more salt as against the 5 gm per day limit recommended by WHO, as reported by by the Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI). The studies have reported that salt intake in Delhi and Haryana was 9.5 gms per day and 10.4 gms per day in Andhra Pradesh. Although it is permissible to have high salty foods occasionally while attending parties, it should not be a regular dietary habit. If high intakes of salt are a regular feature in the diet, that could be harmful to human health. The diet plays a significant role in managing the individual’s blood pressure and cardiovascular health. Diet for a high blood pressure patient should be low on sodium, and a good mix of fibre-rich fruits, whole grains and veggies. Indians should be aware of the fact that the dangers of excessive salt intake are modifying their diets unlike other international communities like Australians who are sticking to high-salt foods though they are aware of its effects. Indians consume 9% more salt than the global average of 10.06 gm.&nbsp; <strong>Read more...</strong></p> G. K. Pal Nivedita Nanda ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-09 2023-05-09 9 4 131 132 10.5530/ijcep.2022.9.4.31 Inhibitory Effects of Lactulose on Enteric Bacterial Dynamics and Gut Permeability in Bile-Duct Ligated Rats <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>The prebiotic potential of lactulose is well known, but its effect to inhibit enteric bacterial dynamics and gut permeability has not yet been investigated in experimental studies. The present study aims to assess the effects of lactulose on the enteric bacterial dynamics gut permeability in a model of bile duct ligation in Wistar rats. <strong>Methods: </strong>Wistar rats were assigned into 3 groups, the Sham-operated control, bile duct ligated (BDL) and BDL+ Lac group on the 28<sup>th </sup>day of bile duct ligation. Animals of BDL + Lac groups were treated with lactulose (1.0 g/kg), administrated by gavage, once a day for 7 days. Bacterial translocation into the organs and bacterial overgrowth as the indicators of the enteric bacterial dynamics and the levels of DAO and D-lactate as the biochemical makers of the gut permeability were measured in each group. <strong>Results:</strong> The bacterial colony forming units (CFU) in spleen and liver of BDL+Lac group was significantly decreased compared with BDL model group (P&lt;0.01) and significant decrease of bacterial CFU was seen in the intestinal lavage in BDL+Lac group compared to BDL group (P&lt;0.01). On the other hand, Lactulose revealed significant inhibitory effect as evidence by decreasing plasma DAO activity and D-lactate levels (P&lt;0.01) in this model. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> These results indicate that lactulose can inhibit the enteric bacterial overgrowth, bacterial translocation (BT) and increasing gut permeability by opening the mucosa tight junction in ductal obstruction and obviate even systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) induced by obstructive jaundice.</p> Kim Hyok Il Han Song Chan Kim So Yong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-09 2023-05-09 9 4 133 135 10.5530/ijcep.2022.9.4.32 Impact of Oral Contraceptive on Induction of Ischemic Stroke in Female Rats <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>There are evidences for role of oral contraceptives on the induction of ischemic stroke in clinical practice, but pathophysiological mechanism underlying these close relationships remains unknown. Furthermore, the impact of oral contraceptive on induction of ischemic stroke in female rats has not been previously studied. This study investigated the induction of ischemic stroke by dose-dependent oral contraceptive in rats. <strong>Methods</strong>: Wistar 30 rats were randomly chosen and divided into three groups: High dose group-1 received daily oral contraceptive (OC), ethinylestradiol (20 mg/kg orally for 16 days) and low dose group-2 (5 mg/kg orally for 16 days) while control group received daily oral saline. The number of neurons per slice in the CA1 hippocampal region and the changes of neurological score as behavioral testing were measured in each group. <strong>Results: </strong>We demonstrated the number of neurons per slice in the CA1 hippocampal region in both high and low dose of oral contraceptive decreased in female rats, in particular, in high group was significantly decreased compared with control group. In addition, a neurological deficit was evident in dose-dependent of oral contraceptive. Further studies are needed to confirm the pathological mechanisms by oral contraceptives but our data provide that oral contraceptive, ethinylestradiol may induce ischemic stroke in dose-dependent.</p> Hwang Won Gang Han Song Chan Kim Jang Mi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-09 2023-05-09 9 4 136 138 10.5530/ijcep.2022.9.4.33 Efficacy of Apricot Kernel Decoction on Salivary Sialic Acid Level in Periodontitis <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim</strong>: This study was designed to explore the clinical utility of apricot kernel decoction on salivary glycoproteins in patients with periodontitis. <strong>Methods: </strong>The salivary samples were obtained from 123 subjects divided into 4 groups, namely healthy individuals (healthy), non-treated patients with periodontitis (control), chlorhexidine-treated patients with periodontitis (chlorhexidine) and both decoction and chlorhexidine-treated patients with periodontitis (decoction + chlorhexidine). Salivary sialic acid level was measured by means of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). Calculus and gingival Index were evaluated by means of Greene and Vermillion and Löe.<strong> Results:</strong> The values of salivary sialic acid in decoction + chlorhexidine group were significantly lower than chlorhexidine group (P&lt;0.05) and control group (P&lt;0.01). On the other hand, in decoction+ chlorhexidine group, Calculus and Gingival Index decreased significantly compared with control group and chlorhexidine group (P&lt;0.01, P&lt;0.05, respectively). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our data suggest that decoction of apricot kernel can be used as mouthwash for the treatment in periodontitis.</p> Yusong Kim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-09 2023-05-09 9 4 139 141 10.5530/ijcep.2022.9.4.34 Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Combined with Aromatic Amino Acids on the Impaired Renal Function in Rats with Chronic Renal Failure <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> At present, the main therapy for chronic renal failure (CRF) is dialysis and renal transplantation, but neither obtains satisfactory results. <em>Salvia miltiorrhiza</em> (SM) is a very popular medicinal plant that has been extensively applied to treat various diseases. It also has been reported that lowering the aromatic aminoacids (AAA) in the protein diet can improve renal function in rodents with CRF. This study seeks to employ the use of SM combined with low aromatic amino acid diet (LA-AAD) for treatment of CRF in rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> Animals were assigned into 3 groups: Control, CRF and Experiment. CRF models were induced by 2.5% adenine administered by gavage for 8 weeks. Control and CRF group received normal protein diet (18.8% proteins, AAA 0.024%), and Experiment group was divided into 3 subgroups, being treated with SM (1.0g/kg/d) and LA-AAD (18% proteins, AAA 0.009%) differently. Proteinuria, blood urine nitrogen (BUN), serum and urine creatinine (Scr, Ucr) were measured and creatinine clearance rate (CCR) was calculated accordingly. <strong>Results: </strong>Proteinuria, BUN, Scr analyses showed amelioration of functional parameters and increased the CCR significantly in LA-AAD + SM group. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: These results showed that the combination of SM and LA-AAD could be beneficial to the improvement of renal function in CRF rats and this method can be a novel strategy for CRF treatment.</p> Suhyon Ko Changwon Kim Kwansop Ko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-09 2023-05-09 9 4 142 145 10.5530/ijcep.2022.9.4.35 Influence of the Combination of Single Fascicle Grafting and Vascular Epithelial Growth Factor on the Nerve Reconstruction in the Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury Model: Experimental Study <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the regeneration effects after sciatic nerve reconstruction with single fascicle grafting + vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared with traditional epineural suture. <strong>Methods:</strong> Sixty-four Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups randomly and created 10-25 mm sciatic nerve defects. In control group, nerve was reconstructed using traditional epineural suture and the rats of the study group were treated with single fascicle grafting + VEGF. At the point of 6 and 12 weeks, testing consisted of sciatic nerve function index (SFI), gastrocnemius muscle weight, toe spread test, pin-prick test was undergone. <strong>Results: </strong>The rats of 25mm defect subgroup repaired with single fascicle grafting + VEGF demonstrated significantly higher SFI score, toe spread test score, re- innervated muscle weight at the points of 6, 12 weeks. And in the 20, 25 mm defect rats of study group, pin-prick test score were significantly higher than the control group. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Single fascicle grafting + VEGF was better to reconstruct long nerve defect compared to epineural suture.</p> Son-Ok Pak Jun-Song Ryu Hae-Gum Ro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-09 2023-05-09 9 4 146 149 10.5530/ijcep.2022.9.4.36 Non-Laboratory-Based Screening of Cardiovascular Disease Risk–Possibilities and Challenges <p style="text-align: justify;">Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are now attributing to 71% of the total global deaths and hence in 2011, United Nations set a target to reduce premature NCD death by 25% by 2025.[1] Among all the major NCDs, Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) especially ischemic heart disease and stroke are the chief contributors of death and disability.[2] Globally 19.1 million deaths are reported in the year 2020 only due to CVD. It is now imparting a dual burden of disease due to steadily escalating cases and disease occurring at relatively early age especially in developing countries. This results in significant clinical and cost implications imparting huge burden on health system. Cardiovascular disease management cost which was around 863 US$ is expected to rise at around 1044 US$ by 2030.[3] So, in order to achieve the NCD targets for 2025, it is imperative to design robust strategies for prevention and control of CVDs and its risk factors. With early identification and robust primary health care systems, developed nations are witnessing reduction in CVD incidences, however developing countries still share 50% of total mortality and 80% of the disease burden. These countries have additional challenge of resource limitation along with larger proportion of the population to be catered and hence they require cost-effective and contextual solutions for the disease. Most effective strategy for managing CVD is prevention and early identification of warning signs. This includes both primordial and primary preventive checkups of the population in very early age (from 30 years) through affordable solutions.&nbsp; <strong>Read more...</strong></p> Komal Shah Vishal Karmani Shubhangini Pandey Kalyan Barua ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-09 2023-05-09 9 4 150 151 10.5530/ijcep.2022.9.4.37