International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology <p><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></p> <p>The aim of International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology (IJCEP) is to publish quality research papers in Physiology that have clinical application in medicine or the papers with experimental evidences having future perspective of application in medicine. As Physiology is the mother-subject of all branches of medicine, the ‘Clinical Physiology’ component will include in addition to the research data in ‘Clinical Physiology’, the research papers from all branches of clinical medicine such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, endocrine disorders, neurological dysfunctions, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal disorders etc., explaining the pathophysiological basis of the diseases and the physiological basis of management and prevention of the diseases. The ‘Experimental Physiology’ component will include reports on all experimental physiology research and the experimental models of diseases that facilitate understanding the pathophysiologic processes and management of diseases. However, the works in ‘Applied Physiology’ or the works in ‘Basic Research in Physiology’ intending to have application in clinical physiology and medicine will be considered for publication in IJCEP. Also, ‘Preventive Physiology’ such as role of nutrition, relaxation therapy, yoga, exercises etc. in health promotion will be published in this journal.</p> <p><strong>Subjects Covered</strong></p> <p>Physiology (Basic, Experimental, Applied and Clinical), Clinical Medicine, Endocrinology, Neurophysiology, Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Gastrointestinal Physiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Physiology and Medicine, Clinical Biochemistry, Exercise Physiology, Nutrition, Sports Physiology and Medicine, Aviation Physiology and Medicine, Behavioural Physiology and Medicine, Reproductive Physiology and Medicine, Ophthalmic Physiology and Medicine, Physiology and Medicine related to ear, nose and throat, Orthopedic Physiology and Medicine, Pathophysiology of Lifestyle and Stress Disorders, Clinical Pharmacology, Physiology of Metabolism and Metabolic disorders and Physiology of Yoga.</p> en-US (IJCEP Editorial Office) (Webmaster) Fri, 26 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Yoga for Achieving Perfect Health <p style="text-align: justify;">Yoga as envisaged in Indian scriptures is an ancient method for spiritual experience. However, yoga is usually practiced for relaxation of body and mind and for achieving good health. In the last few years, with acceptance of 21st June as the International Yoga Day, the practice of yoga has become universal. Yoga has become part of many health fitness centers, where yoga is incorporated into the group instruction curriculum. Although some people still view yoga as a practice reserved for spiritual seekers looking for inner peace, yoga is rapidly being embraced by many in the modern societies as an alternative to increase the strength and endurance. But more importantly, yoga is slowly becoming part of the therapy for keeping good health, prevent decay and degeneration and as a supplement for the management of many lifestyle disorders.</p> Gopal Krushna Pal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 24 Aug 2022 08:48:38 +0000 Molecular Physiology of Magnesium in Cardiovascular System and Pathobiology of Hypomagnesaemia in Cardiovascular Diseases <p style="text-align: justify;">Magnesium, the fourth most abundant cation in the human body, is involved in several essential physiological, biochemical, and cellular processes regulating cardiovascular function. Mammalian cells regulate Mg<sup>2+</sup> concentration through specialized influx and efflux transport systems that have only recently been characterized. Mg<sup>2+</sup> influx is controlled by recently cloned transporters including Mrs2p, SLC41A1, SLC41A1, ACDP2, MagT1, TRPM6 and TRPM7. Magnesium efflux occurs via Na<sup>2+-</sup>dependent and Na<sup>2+-</sup>independent pathways. It plays a critical role in modulating vascular smooth muscle tone, endothelial cell function, and myocardial excitability and is thus central to the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias. Much research is still needed to clarify the exact mechanisms of Mg<sup>2+</sup> regulation in the cardiovascular system and the implications of aberrant transcellular Mg<sup>2+</sup> transport in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. This review discusses the vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-ischemic, and antiarrhythmic properties of magnesium and its current role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders.</p> Leta Shiferaw Melaku ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 24 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Cardiometabolic Risks in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Mini-Review <p style="text-align: justify;">Diabetes is one of the most common medical problems encountered in about 3.8% - 41% of pregnancies across the various parts of India. It contributes to maternal morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. Insulin resistance and β – cell dysfunction are the characteristics of GDM. Women with GDM had many immediate adverse fetomaternal and neonatal outcomes. In addition to the immediate adverse outcomes, women with GDM also had long-term complications such as dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease in later life. Current evidence suggests that GDM is highly associated with cardiometabolic risks (CMR) during gestation and in post-gestational period. Though the mechanism behind the pathogenesis of CMR in GDM is multifactorial, placental hormones, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a significant role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular risks in pregnant women with GDM.</p> Manoharan Renugasundari, Gopal Krushna Pal, Latha Chaturvedula, Nivedita Nanda, KT Harichandrakumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 24 Aug 2022 06:38:07 +0000 Investigation of the Effect and Possible Mechanism of Antihypertensive Activity of Lycopene-rich Extract of Solanum lycopersicon in Wistar Rats <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>Hypertension is a common debilitating illness among people in both developed and developing countries. This study investigated the effect and possible mechanism of the antihypertensive activity of lycopene-rich extract of <em>Solanum lycopersicon </em>(LRESL) on Wistar rats. <strong>Methods: </strong>Sixty hypertensive Wistar rats were divided into seven experimental groups viz: Group A served as a normotensive group and received food and clean distilled water<em> ad</em> <em>libitum.</em> Group B was the hypertensive untreated group; Groups C-E served as hypertensive group administered with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg LRESL, respectively. While group F was hypertensive and received 10 mg/kg amlodipine and group G received 200 mg/kg of LRESL+0.5 mg/kg Lisinopril respectively.<strong> Results:</strong> There was a statistical significant decrease (P&lt;0.05) in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the decrease was in a dose-dependent manner. The heart rate showed no statistical significant difference among the groups. The total cholesterol (TC) increased in the positive and normal control compared to other groups. There was a significant decrease in the triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in all hypertensive treated groups. The decrease in the LRESL treated groups was in a dose-dependent manner and there was no significant difference between the groups compared to the normotensive and positive control. Moreover, the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) had a significant reverse effect of the LDL-C as there was a significant increase (P&lt;0.05) in HDL-C and the increase was more significant in group E and G respectively. The serum cardiac arginase (SCAr) activity also decreased significantly (P&lt;0.05) in all groups except group B compared to the normotensive and positive control groups and in a dose-dependent manner. The serum nitric oxide (SNO) concentration also increased in all test groups in a dose-dependent pattern except the positive control group. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study suggests that LRESL has an antihypertensive property and elicited this through multiple mechanisms involving a decrease in SCAr, LDL-C, body weight and marked elevation of SNO and could be used as a novel compound channeled into the production of antihypertensive drugs.</p> Ani Celestine Okafor, Maduka Nweke Luke, Okeke Pearl Adaobi, Okolo Kenneth Obinna, Ndubuisi Richard Nonso, Okorie Pamela Onyinye, Chukwuaja Brien John, Agu Francis Uchenna, Anyaeji Pamela Somke, Eghosa Iyare Edorisiagbon, Okechukwu Omire-Oluedo, Nwachukwu Daniel Chukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 24 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Slow Breathing Exercise Improves Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Male Patients with Transfusion Dependent Thalassemia: A Power Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim</strong>: Iron overload induced cardiac autonomic dysfunction is a major contributor to fatal arrhythmia and cardiac morbidity and mortality in transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) patients. Slow breathing exercise (SBE) increases cardiac parasympathetic activity in health and disease. This study aimed to assess the effect of slow breathing exercise (SBE) on frequency domain measures of heart rate variability in TDT patients.<strong> Methods:</strong> This prospective interventional study was done on 60 diagnosed male TDT patients aged 15-30 years. They were subdivided into 30 patients with conventional treatment only and 30 patients performed SBE for consecutive 3 months along with the conventional treatment. Age and gender matched healthy control were also studied without SBE. HRV parameters were recorded by Power Lab 8/35. For statistical analysis paired t test and independent sample t test were done as applicable.<strong> Results:</strong> Total power (TP), High frequency power (HF), HFnu and Low frequency power (LF) were found significantly lower but LFnu and LF/HF were found significantly higher in TDT patients compared to healthy control at baseline. After 3 months of SBE, significant increment of TP, HF and HFnu and significant decrement of LF, LFnu and LF/HF occurred with trend of improvement in cardiac autonomic nerve function in TDT patients. No significant change in these parameters was found in patients without SBE after 3 months of follow-up. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>SBE can improve cardiac autonomic dysfunction by restoring cardiac vagal activity and reducing sympathetic activity with shifting of autonomic balance to parasympathetic predominance in TDT patients.</p> Kamol Chandra Das, Sultana Ferdousi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 24 Aug 2022 07:18:25 +0000 Effect of Lesion of Central Amygdala on Heart Rate Variability in Albino Wistar Rats <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) and amygdalar connections. HRV is also influenced by emotions, which is controlled by limbic system. Thus, amygdala-limbic connection is suggested to be the major integrator of HRV and the alterations in the regulation lead to cardiometabolic risks. The present study was conducted to assess the central amygdala in the heart rate variability in albino Wistar rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 8 albino Wistar rats were taken for the study. Stereotaxic procedure was performed and lesion was made into the central amygdalar nuclei bilaterally. HRV was assessed before and after lesion of central amygdala. <strong>Results:</strong> Following lesion of central amygdala, there was decrease in total power (TP), high frequency (HF), and other time domain indices of HRV, while there was increase in low frequency (LF) and LF-HF ratio. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Lesion of central amygdala decreased TP indicating the crucial role of central amygdala in the control of HRV. The control of central amygdala on sympathovagal balance is profound.</p> Parasuraman Poovarasan, Gopal Krushna Pal, Nivedita Nanda, Balakumar Bharathi, Manoharan Renugasundari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 24 Aug 2022 07:30:17 +0000 Influence of Geopathic Stress Zone on Heart Rate variability Parameters <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Geopathic stress (GS)is the effect of detrimental earth radiation and electro-magnetic radiation on the health of human body.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the geopathic stress on heart rate variability(HRV) parameters in healthy human subjects.<strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Methods:</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The time and frequency &nbsp;domain HRV analyses were performed to assess the changes in sympathovagal &nbsp;balance in group of 60 healthy volunteers with normal electrocardiogram(ECG).Sixty volunteers we-re selected for the study with &nbsp;no history of illness(40 healthy men volunteers, 20 healthy women vo-lunteers). By using the apparatus Rayocomp PS-10(German, Rayonex), Geopathic stress zone were measured. The time and frequency domain HRV analyses were performed befor and after 60 minutes stay of volunteers in Geopathic stress zone. <strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Results:</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>During 60 minutes stay on the GS zone, the time domain parameters such as standard &nbsp;deviation(SD, ms) of all normal sinus RR intervals were significantly decreased. Then frequency domain parameters such as very low frequency (VLF, ms<sup>2</sup>), low frequency (LF, ms), and the LF/HF ratio were significantly increased. <strong>Conclusion:</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The study indicated&nbsp;&nbsp;that the stay of healthy&nbsp;human&nbsp;in the GS zone may influence heart rate variability and change the sympathovagal&nbsp;balance.</p> Won Jong, Kyong Hui Ri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 24 Aug 2022 07:43:00 +0000 Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome and Super-infection after COVID-19 <p style="text-align: justify;">Atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) following pneumococcal infection is a rare but can be serious.[1] In fact many renal findings such as rising serum LDH, thrombocytopenia and rising creatinine after COVID-19 can be misleading us for pneumococcal infection solely or co-infection and its complication named as atypical HUS but the incidence of such event and its relation with streptococcal pneumonia as a causative factor of atypical HUS is unknown. There are different incidences of acute kidney injury (AKI) following COVID-19 not only among countries but cities of a country with same management guidelines,[2] many case series tried to identify the role of super-infection in COVID-19 but none hinted the incidence of AKI in them, 16 agents identified as super-infection as a high event (49.6%) in COVID 19 include of Klebsiella (pneumonia and oxytoca) and Staphylococcus aureus as the most frequent.[3] It seems that atypical HUS following in COVID 19 is not a common finding because of it is defined in cases reports without known causative factor that mostly recovered by using eculizumab.[4] Such evidences show streptococcal pneumonia has not any role as a super-infection during COVID-19 or inciting factor in atypical HUS that may be seen rarely during COVID-19 epidemics bring vaccination against pneumococcus into question because of it cannot cover all serotypes and insufficient immunogenicity specially in renal failure or after organ transplantation[5] on the other side necrotizing pneumonia (NP) as prototype of invasive pneumococcus that may herald of severe forms of renal failure was not reported following COVID-19. During COVID-19 most of NP occur as a late complication of COVID-19 mainly due to Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa super-infection without significant AKI occurrence or atypical HUS in affected cases.[6]. <strong>Read More...</strong></p> Majid Malaki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 24 Aug 2022 07:48:29 +0000 News and Views <p>Menopause refers to a non-pathological condition, wherein there is cessation of menstruation for atleast one year.The age of natural menopause in india is 46.2 ± 4.9 years.<sup>[1]</sup> Research studies show that in urban cities like pondicherry, more than one‑third of the postmenopausal women are having a poor quality of life.<sup>[2]</sup> There is impaired urogenital, vasomotor and cognitive symptoms, caused due to decreased estrogen levels in the body. This estrogen deficient state puts post-menopausal women at a higher risk of cardiovascular events.<sup>[3]</sup> Also, sympathovagal imbalance is observed in post-menopausal women with&nbsp; increased sympathetic activity and reduced parasympathetic activity which adds to the cardiovascular risk.<sup>[4]</sup> Heart rate variability is a sensitive measure of sympathovagal imbalance.<sup>[4]</sup> It is found that there is a decline in heart rate variability in post menopausal women.<sup>[5]</sup> Recent study shows that postmenopausal state also offers higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome with an increased level of insulin resistance.<sup>[6]</sup> This can also be indicated by deranged lipid profile in them, such as higher triglyceride and total cholestrol.<sup>[7]</sup> With a myriad of symptoms to deal with, there are fewer treatment alternatives for post-menopausal women.</p> Jha Mitali, Pravati Pal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 24 Aug 2022 08:00:54 +0000