International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology <p><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></p> <p>The aim of International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology (IJCEP) is to publish quality research papers in Physiology that have clinical application in medicine or the papers with experimental evidences having future perspective of application in medicine. As Physiology is the mother-subject of all branches of medicine, the ‘Clinical Physiology’ component will include in addition to the research data in ‘Clinical Physiology’, the research papers from all branches of clinical medicine such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, endocrine disorders, neurological dysfunctions, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal disorders etc., explaining the pathophysiological basis of the diseases and the physiological basis of management and prevention of the diseases. The ‘Experimental Physiology’ component will include reports on all experimental physiology research and the experimental models of diseases that facilitate understanding the pathophysiologic processes and management of diseases. However, the works in ‘Applied Physiology’ or the works in ‘Basic Research in Physiology’ intending to have application in clinical physiology and medicine will be considered for publication in IJCEP. Also, ‘Preventive Physiology’ such as role of nutrition, relaxation therapy, yoga, exercises etc. in health promotion will be published in this journal.</p> <p><strong>Subjects Covered</strong></p> <p>Physiology (Basic, Experimental, Applied and Clinical), Clinical Medicine, Endocrinology, Neurophysiology, Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Gastrointestinal Physiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Physiology and Medicine, Clinical Biochemistry, Exercise Physiology, Nutrition, Sports Physiology and Medicine, Aviation Physiology and Medicine, Behavioural Physiology and Medicine, Reproductive Physiology and Medicine, Ophthalmic Physiology and Medicine, Physiology and Medicine related to ear, nose and throat, Orthopedic Physiology and Medicine, Pathophysiology of Lifestyle and Stress Disorders, Clinical Pharmacology, Physiology of Metabolism and Metabolic disorders and Physiology of Yoga.</p> en-US (IJCEP Editorial Office) (Webmaster) Thu, 27 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Short-Term Practice of Pranayama Based Yoga Ensures Sympathovagal Balance and Facilitates Fetomaternal Outcomes in Gestational Diabetes in the 3rd Trimester of Pregnancy <p>Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with the onset or first recognition during the present pregnancy at 24-28 weeks of gestation.<sup>[1]</sup> The prevalence of GDM in various regions of India ranges from 3.8% to 41%. In Tamil Nadu, the prevalence rate is 18.9%.<sup>[2]</sup></p> Gopal Krushna Pal, Manoharan Renugasundari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Cardiovascular Kidney Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Hepato-renal Metabolic Syndrome (CHARM): From Encryption to Decryption <p style="text-align: justify;">Due to derangement of normal homeostasis in the human body, we have an orchestra of syndromes like Metabolic Syndrome (MeTS), Cardiometabolic Syndrome (CMS), Cardiorenal Syndrome (CRS), Hepato-Renal Syndrome (HRS) and recently in 2023, American Heart Association (AHA) introduced Cardiovascular Kidney Metabolic syndrome (CKM), all have serious impact on an individual’s health and healthcare costs. It is necessary to recognize the basic pathophysiology and the rising prevalence of these syndromes worldwide, as timely diagnostic and therapeutic interventions having strong physiological basis, can halt their progression and potentially be reversed. This review article has been planned by searching MEDLINE database to bring out a brief and lucid pathophysiology regarding the above mentioned syndromes and with the exponential rise in prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) or the newer term Metabolic dysfunction-Associated Steatotic Liver Disease (MASLD), the possibility of the origin of another new syndrome called as Cardiovascular Hepato-Renal Metabolic syndrome (CHARM) has occurred, because the role of liver pathophysiology has been underestimated and masked under metabolic aspect of CKM syndrome by American heart association.</p> Balaji Pishey Ashwathnarayan Roa, Smitha Ranoji Rao Varne ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 26 Jun 2024 11:43:42 +0000 Assessment of Microcirculatory Kinetics Using the Microscopic Phase of the Nail Fold Capillary in Pregnant Women <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Recently, the rapid development of science and technology has led to the development of capillary studies. Particularly, the observation of microcirculation in nail fold capillaries, called “ghost vessels”, has attracted much attention from doctors. Therefore, we studied the microcirculatory kinetics of the nail fold capillary in pregnant women and the relationship between blood flow rate and passive smoking. <strong>Methodology:</strong> We took-up a case-control study with 83 normal pregnant women, 24 passive smoking pregnant women and 12 healthy non-pregnant women who hospitalized in Pyongyang University Hospital of Medical Sciences from May 2020 to February 2022. We analyzed the morphological indices and blood flow rate of the nail fold capillary in pregnant women according to the weeks of gestation and passive smoking.<strong> Results:</strong> The blood flow rate of the nail fold capillary in normal pregnant women significantly increased and in passive smoking pregnant women according to the weeks of gestation significantly decreased. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Microcirculation is altered in normal pregnant women and microcirculatory behavior is different in passive smoking pregnant women.</p> Mun Chol Jon ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Changes in the Function of Interstitial Cells of Cajal and Fecundity During Chronic Salpingitis: An Experimental Study <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Chlamydial infection is a sexually transmitted disease which is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Experimentally clarifying the functional and morphological changes of oviduct by chlamydial infection which is the cause of infertility will contribute to establish a new treatment way for diagnosing and treating infertility. We conducted this study to clarify the changes of the function of interstitial cells of Cajal and fecundity in chronic salpingitis white rat models which are made by infecting its vaginal cavity with Chlamydia. <strong>Methodology:</strong> We developed chronic salpingitis model by injecting 1×107 /50 μL Chlamydia into vaginal cavity of each rat. Pregnancy was induced, 4 weeks after infection. The 8th, 13th, 18th day we assessed the function of interstitial cells of Cajal by amplifying and measuring bioelectric potential with microelectrode on oviduct and assessed fecundity by counting the number of fetuses in uterus and judging life or deaths of fetuses. <strong>Results:</strong> The function of interstitial cells of Cajal and fecundity in chronic salpingitis white rat models were significantly destroyed compared with those in normal. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The function of interstitial cells of Cajal and fecundity in chronic salpingitis white rat models which are made by infecting its vaginal cavity with Chlamydia are significantly destroyed compared with normal rats.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Yong Chol Hong, Gyong Rim Kim, Jun Il Kang, Jong Hwa Jin, Ji Yong Jong ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Level and Geriatric Depression Scale among Elderly Persons with Mild to Moderate Depression <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> Depression is a common mental health issue among the elderly. Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) is involved in neuronal survival and modulation of neurotransmitter profiles. Zinc deficiency increases neuronal degeneration. This study aims to investigate the effect of zinc supplementation on serum BDNF level and GDS (Geriatric Depression Scale) among elderly persons with mild to moderate depression. <strong>Methodology:</strong> Total 76 elderly persons with mild to moderate depression according to GDS score were selected and randomly assigned to supplement (zinc or placebo) groups using block randomization. Before and after supplementation of 20 mg zinc tablets/placebo tablets for 3 months, serum zinc levels and serum BDNF levels were measured, using the flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and GDS score also reassessed in both groups.<strong> Results:</strong> Baseline serum zinc, serum BDNF and GDS score were not significantly different between two groups. After zinc supplementation, serum zinc level and serum BDNF level were significantly increased. GDS score was also significantly reduced in the zinc group. Comparing to the placebo group, zinc group had lower GDS score and higher BDNF level. There was a significant negative correlation between serum zinc level and GDS score after supplementation in the study population. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Zinc supplementation for three months had a beneficial effect on elderly persons with mild to moderate depression.</p> Ei Ei Mya Thant, Thurein Zaw, Sanda Kyaw, Soe Minn Htway ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 26 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Pattern of ABO and Rhesus Blood Group Distribution among Second Year Medical Students of Arsi University, Southeast Ethiopia <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The genetics, inheritance patterns and disease susceptibility of blood group antigens, which are hereditary in nature, are crucial for transfusion safety. The purpose of the present study was to determine the frequency and distribution of both ABO and Rhesus blood types among second year medical students of Arsi University. <strong>Methodology:</strong> All second-year medical students at Arsi University participated in a cross-sectional study that was institutionally based. A structured questionnaire and a data collection sheet were used to obtain the socio-demographic data and blood group types of study participants. The blood samples were obtained by standard procedures and subjected to determination of ABO and Rhesus blood group using anti-sera by combined slide and test tube method. Each sample was tested for ABO and Rhesus status. The collected data were double entered into Epi-data version 3.1 and exported into SPSS version-22 for analysis. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate percentage frequencies of blood phenotype. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the blood groups were calculated from the observed phenotypes under the assumption of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. <strong>Results:</strong> In the present study, one questionnaire was rejected for incompleteness, resulting in a response rate of 98.89%. The respondents had a mean age of 21.38 years (SD±0.898) and were mainly female (58.4%). The distribution of ABO blood group was; blood group O (39.3%); blood group A (31.5%); blood group B (24.7%) and blood group AB (4.5%). The proportions of Rhesus (D) positive and Rhesus (D) negative were 84.3% and 15.7%, respectively. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The current study revealed that blood group O is the most frequent blood group among the ABO blood group system with dominant Rh positivity. This study along with other similar studies in other regions of the country will be useful for health planners to face medical emergencies.</p> Leta Melaku, Bedasa Elias ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 26 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Biomechanical Comparison Using 3-D Finite Element Method between Cortical Screw Trajectory Fixation and Pedicle Screw Fixation for Fusion of the Lumbar Degenerative Spine <p>Posterior fusion has been popularized for degenerative and traumatic spine conditions thanks to its convenience and facilities including direct access to the spinous processes, laminae, facets and exposure of spinal canal through posterior approach and neurological decompression while various surgical instruments and implants and techniques have been developed to enhance stability and apply maneuvers easily. As technology for spinal fusion has rapidly evolved in recent years, a new technique of cortical screw trajectory fixation has been reported minimal invasion and further constructs stiffness compared to pedicle screw fixation. Hence, we purposed to find biomechanical properties of cortical screw trajectory fixation and pedicle screw fixation in lumbar spine model and compare them. Biomechanical analysis was conducted using 3-D geometrical and Finite Element Method (FEM) models of fusion of the lumbar spine at the level of L4-L5 treated by cortical screw trajectory fixation and pedicle screw fixation fewer than four types of loads: flexion, extension, axial compression and torsion. The values of stiffness and displacement in the intervertebral disc and facet joints at the L4-L5 level when treated with the cortical screw trajectory fixation were the same or lower compared to the pedicle screw fixation. Cortical screw trajectory fixation provides greater stability than traditional pedicle screw fixation in fusion of the degenerative lumbar spine.</p> Jun Won, Mun Sik Ko, Hak Pong Hwang, Sung Gwon Won, Chon Il Hong ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 26 Jun 2024 12:18:17 +0000 Serum Vitamin B12 Level: Physiological Effects in Pregnancy <p>Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin), a water-soluble vitamin is an essential nutrient required for maintenance of normal erythropoiesis, nucleoprotein and myelin synthesis, cell reproduction and normal growth. Vitamin B12 is a necessary cofactor in the methionine synthase reaction, which converts homocysteine into methionine. During pregnancy, Vitamin B12 is concentrated in the fetus mostly in the liver. Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in the infant up to 4 months if mothers receive adequate Vitamin B12.<sup>[1,2]</sup></p> Majid Malaki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 News and Views <p>The average sleep duration required for an adult is typically between 7 to 8 hours per day.<sup>[1]</sup> According to Philips Global Sleep Survey 2019, 67% of adults worldwide reported experiencing sleep disturbances, with sleep deprivation accounting for 20%.<sup>[2]</sup> Acute sleep deprivation, characterized by a complete lack of sleep or a reduction in the usual total sleep time lasting one or two days,<sup>[3]</sup> has been associated with a myriad of adverse health outcomes.</p> Sivasubramanian Nirangjhana ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000