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  Most popular articles (Since September 16, 2013)

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Effects of yoga training on blood pressure response during surya namaskar following eleven months of yoga practice in army men and yoga-trained individuals
Biswajit Sinha, Tulika Dasgupta Sinha, Anjana Pathak, Omveer Singh Tomer
January-March 2014, 1(1):51-56
Background and Aim: Surya namaskar (SN), a popular traditional Indian yogic practice, called sun salutations, is a series of 12 physical postures performed with controlled breathing. The present study was carried out to investigate the blood pressure (BP) response i.e., sympathetic reactivity during actual performance of SN at three different phases of yoga training for 11 months. Methods: It was an interventional study design where nine healthy, male, army volunteers were selected and imparted training in various yogic practices for 11 months. Their systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during actual performance of SN were measured after 3, 6 and 11 months of training. BP responses of army personnel were compared with those of yoga proficient ( n = 10) and semi-proficient ( n = 9) individuals. Results: Average SBP during SN in trainees (at different phases of the training), proficient and semi-proficient was 158.2, 141.3, 138.7, 152.4 and 155.9 mmHg, respectively. DBP and MAP during SN in trainees, proficient and semi-proficient were 98.9, 92.9, 86.9, 106.7 and 96 mmHg and 117.3, 105.7, 101.8, 122 and 115.9 mmHg, respectively. Conclusion: Training in yogic practices for 11 months brought about a substantial reduction of BP response i.e., sympathetic reactivity during actual performance of SN in a group of army soldiers. The training helped them to achieve the same level of proficiency with those of yoga proficient and semi-proficient individuals.
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Sample size calculation to data analysis of a correlation study in Microsoft Excel® : A hands-on guide with example
Himel Mondal, Shaikat Mondal
October-December 2016, 3(4):180-189
Background and Aim: Investigators use correlation study to determine the extent to which two or more variables are related among a single group of people. One big question frequently encountered by investigators is How to calculate sample size? After data collection, it is essential to test the data statistically. Hence, we planned to provide hands-on guide for sample size calculation and statistical analysis of data in Microsoft Excel® 2010 commonly needed for a correlation study. Methods: An example of a correlation study of body mass index and peak expiratory flow rate was taken. Its execution process from sample size calculation to statistical analysis of data has been explained step by step in Excel® 2010. All formula and functions were tested in Excel® 2007. Conclusion: Excel® as a tool for statistical analysis of data would facilitate researchers to do all statistical analyses in a single file. Along with correlation study, analysis by t-test and ANOVA was also provided. With this discussion, new investigators would get a fair knowledge about sample size calculation and data analysis of correlation study in Excel® and can use it for their future studies.
  7,371 671 -
Measuring pain in clinical trials: Pain scales, endpoints, and challenges
Payal Bhardwaj, Raj Kumar Yadav
July-September 2015, 2(3):151-156
Measuring pain objectively in clinical trials is a challenging task; deciding upon endpoints, selecting the tools to measure the pain, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of data further complicates this. Though there are some guidelines available but technical and operational variations and complexities make it difficult. Since pain is a subjective dimension, an objective measurement of pain becomes highly complex. Currently, available tools for pain measurement include both uni- and multi-dimensional tools. While acute pain can be adequately measured using uni-dimensional tools, measurement of chronic pain requires multi-dimensional tool. There are several factors that may bias the measurement, analysis as well as results, and need to be considered while measuring pain in clinical trials. The present article briefly reviews the available pain assessment tools, the recommendations, issues in measurement, accuracy, validity, statistical, and interpretational challenges. We will also discuss about confounding factors while measuring pain, and how to adjust for these while analyzing the data.
  6,479 860 2
Role of yoga in hormonal homeostasis
Aarti Sood Mahajan
July-September 2014, 1(3):173-178
There is dearth of randomized controlled trials and studies and lack of information about the duration of therapy, side-effects, contraindications, compliance and long-term effects of yoga practice for most of the endocrine disorders. In this review, we have discussed the effect of yoga on plasma levels of hormones and neurotransmitters. The analysis and interpretation of this data can be useful to encourage research and therapeutic trials in many endocrine disorders. The mechanisms contributing to the therapeutic benefits of yoga include stress reduction, alteration of hypothalamopituitary adrenal axis, balancing the autonomic nervous system and immune modulation. This review includes the studies that describe the changes in the neurotransmitter and hormonal levels by yogic interventions to achieve improvements in the metabolic profile of yoga practitioner.
  6,600 642 1
Learning style preference for basic medical science: A key to instructional design
Himel Mondal, Shaikat Mondal, Debasish Das
Jul-Sep 2016, 3(3):122-126
Background and Aim: Students have specific learning style preference, and it is important for designing classroom instruction to make a better learning environment. There are mainly four sensory modalities for learning (V = visual, A = aural, R = read/write, and K = kinesthetic) and these can be assessed. Methods: A cross-sectional study of the 1st-year medical students (n = 146) was carried out. VARK® questionnaire version 7.8, a set of 16 multiple-choice questions with a pretested additional questionnaire, was used to assess the preferred learning mode. Results: Kinesthetic mode is most preferred (total score = 1146), followed by aural (total score = 808), visual (total score = 624), and read/write (total score = 584). Mean value: V = 4.27 ± 2.87, A = 5.53 ± 2.95, R = 4 ± 2.21, K = 7.85 ± 2.72. Preference for practical class is 52%, discussion with teacher is 39%, 1-h lecture is 5%, and tutorial is least preferred (4%). For lecture, chalk and talk gets 76% preference with the second choice as PowerPoint™ (PPT) presentation (13%). For PPT slides, “salient points and diagram” in the slide are most preferred (58%), followed by “diagram only” in the slide (30%). Animated image or video is preferred by majority (52%) of students. Moreover, learners enjoy a class with some breaks and humor (48%) while 31% like interaction with teachers. During lecture, 82% students like to take notes whereas 18% do not like to take notes. Conclusion: This study has revealed that most students learn best by kinesthetic method and practical classes. Still, students prefer blackboard/whiteboard teaching with some humor. For PPT presentation, they prefer salient points and diagram with a preference of animation or video. Majority take notes from class. These findings would help a teacher to design their instructional material for effective teaching.
  6,663 531 -
Color difference on simple visual reaction time in young volunteers
Anupama Batra, Sangeeta Vyas, Dheeraj Jeph
October-December 2014, 1(4):311-313
Simple reaction time is used to evaluate the processing speed and the co-ordination between the sensory and motor systems. Reaction time is influenced by various factors. Therefore, the effect of color stimulus in modulating the reaction time among young Indian males has been investigated in this study. A total of 50 healthy volunteers (young males) of age group 18-28 years were included in the study. The subjects were presented with two visual stimuli viz.; red and green light by using an audio visual reaction time apparatus. Using paired t-test for comparison of visual reaction time between red and green color in young males, it was observed that the response latency for red color was significantly less compared to green color (P < 0.05). From the present study, it could be suggested that the color stimulus has an impact in modulating the visual reaction time.
  5,613 486 -
Prolonged use of mosquito coil, mats, and liquidators: A review of its health implications
Nitin Ashok John, Jyoti John
October-December 2015, 2(4):209-213
Mosquito coils are burnt indoors and outdoors in India to control mosquitoes. Human beings get exposed to a chemically complex mosquito coil smoke containing small particles (<1 μm), metal fumes, and vapors that may reach the alveolar region of the lung. Coils consist of an insecticide/repellant, organic fillers, binders, and additives such as synergists, dyes, and fungicide. Thus, the smoke contains pollutants of health concern. The concentrations of pollutants resulting from burning mosquito coils may exceed health-based air quality standards and have ill effect on health. Hence, in this review, we have discussed the health implications due to burning of mosquito coil, mats, and heating of mosquito refill liquidators.
  4,768 855 2
Curry plant, Murraya koenigii L.: An indigenous spice plant with versatile medicinal property: A minireview
Shyamapada Mandal
April-June 2016, 3(2):59-65
This communication states the biological activities, phytochemical spectrum, medicinal properties, and nutritional potentiality of curry plant, Murraya koenigii L. (Family: Rutaceae). The M. koenigii is a valued dietary plant used as spice since the ancient times for its characteristic aroma, and in medicine because of its possession of several bioactive compounds with health promoting properties. Curry leaves are rich source of natural antioxidant substances such as tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, flavonoids, and phenolics. The extracts and essential oil of the plant exhibit antibacterial and antifungal activities. The curry leaves possess potential anticancer activities because of their strong antioxidative properties in various systems. The nutritional potentiality contained in the plant includes minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids. Additional information on the bioactive components in M. koenigii will help evaluate the health benefits from this functional food plant, and thus, this review updates the facts and phenomena related to the bioactive compounds in curry plant along with their biological activities, due to the web-based search on the topic in SCI and non-SCI journals.
  4,333 396 1
Current understanding on the neurobiology of sleep and wakefulness
Arun Sasidharan, Sathiamma Sulekha, Bindu Kutty
January-March 2014, 1(1):3-9
The modern concept of sleep and wakefulness has evolved from the landmark discovery of ascending reticular activating system by Moruzzi and Magoun in 1949. The other major contributions have come from the electrophysiological studies of sleep-wake states following the discovery of electroencephalogram by Hans Berger in 1929. Research studies over the past 60 years have provided us an enormous understanding on the neural basis of sleep-wake states and their regulatory mechanisms. By shuttling through the two behavioral states of sleep and wake, brain coordinates many complex functions essential for cellular homeostasis and adaptation to environment. This review briefly summarizes the current awareness on the dynamicity of brain mechanisms of sleep and wakefulness as well as the newer concepts of the biological functions of sleep.
  3,963 469 -
Impact of chronic cigarette smoking on platelet aggregation and coagulation profile in apparently healthy male smokers
Metta Sandhya, Uppala Satyanarayana, Shruti Mohanty, Doddamani R Basalingappa
April-June 2015, 2(2):128-133
Background and Aim: Chronic cigarette smoking affects the normal hemostasis by influencing the coagulation pathways. However, the effect of smoking intensity on the degree of impairment of coagulation cascade still remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of smoking on the coagulation cascade and to study the association of smoking duration with coagulation defects. Methods: A total of 120 apparently healthy subjects were enrolled for our study, were subsequently divided into 60 chronic smokers and 60 nonsmokers. The smokers group was further divided into group-1 (5-15 pack years) and group-2 (>15 pack years) depending on the duration of smoking. All the subjects were evaluated for complete hemogram, platelet count, mean platelet volume, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and platelet aggregation. Results: The platelet count was significantly (P < 0.05) lower, APTT was significantly shorter (P < 0.001) and platelet aggregability was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in smokers. Smokers with >15 pack years of duration had significantly high platelet aggregation and shorter APTT compared to smokers with 5-15 pack years. Pearson correlation analysis suggested a strong negative correlation between platelet count and APTT with duration of smoking (r = −0.557 and r = −0.342, respectively). Conclusion: Chronic smokers tend to have lower platelet count, shorter APTT, and higher platelet aggregability compared to non-smokers. Therefore, chronic smokers should be investigated for hemostatic dysfunctions.
  4,076 334 1
Effect of music on heart rate variability and stress in medical students
Radhakrishnan Latha, Srinivasan Srikanth, Hariraj Sairaman, Nissi Roja Edmand Dity
April-June 2014, 1(2):131-134
Background and Aim: The stress in medical students is associated with concerns about mastering knowledge, personal endurance and lack of time for other activities. This study had been planned to assess the effect of music on frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) as markers of autonomic functions and the stress level in medical students. Methods: Both male and female medical students aged between 17-20 years were randomly divided into two groups: Music ( n = 39) and nonmusic ( n = 41) groups. The participants in music group were asked to listen, a preselected classical music (Rag bilahari) for 30 minutes daily for one month. The frequency domain parameters of HRV were assessed in both the groups and the stress level was assessed by perceived stress scale in the music group. Results: The music group demonstrated a significant decrease in heart rate ( P < 0.0001), mean arterial pressure (P < 0.02) and rate pressure product ( P < 0.01) compared with non-music group. The music group also showed a significant increase in the total power ( P < 0.0001) and high frequency normalized unit ( P < 0.0001) and a significant decrease in low frequency normalized unit ( P < 0.0001) and low frequency/high frequency ratio, the most reliable marker of sympathovagal balance ( P < 0.0001) compared with nonmusic group. The stress level in music group was reduced significantly ( P < 0.0001) after listening to music. Conclusion: The study shows the possibility that classical music may have a beneficial effect on HRV and reduces the stress level in medical students, as the autonomic balance shifts towards the improvement of parasympathetic tone.
  3,596 498 2
Resting heart rate is the index of cardiovascular health
GK Pal
October-December 2014, 1(4):243-244
  1,505 2,531 2
Is prehypertension a disease?
GK Pal
October-December 2015, 2(4):207-208
  1,215 2,756 -
Yoga and heart rate variability
Gopal Krushna Pal
January-March 2015, 2(1):2-9
Yoga is the union with the divine. Though there are different types of yoga, the primary objective of all yoga practices is to ensure an integral health, free from common health problems and stress-related disorders. Sympathovagal balance is the cornerstone of a stable homeostasis. Sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) has been reported to be associated with diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and other metabolic disorders. SVI has been documented to promote degeneration and decay and is the basis of all cause morbidity and mortality. Heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) are measures of sympathovagal balance or imbalance. Resting tachycardia and decreased HRV are established cardiovascular (CV) risks. Practice of yoga, especially relaxation techniques and slow pranayamas has been known to ensure sympathovagal balance, improve HRV and reduce CV risks. In this review, we discuss the types of yoga, physiological basis of improvement of health in yoga practice, the concept and importance of HRV, attainment of sympathovagal balance and improvement of HRV through practice of yoga.
  3,283 499 3
Sympathovagal imbalance in obesity: Cardiovascular perspectives
Jagadeeswaran Indumathy, Gopal Krushna Pal, Pravati Pal
April-June 2014, 1(2):93-100
Obesity is an independent predictor of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Irrespective of the etiology, sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) in the form of sympathetic overactivity and vagal withdrawal has been recognized as the central pathophysiological mechanism involved in the genesis of obesity. Also, SVI has been reported to be the potential contributor to the obesity related co-morbidities such as diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and CV dysfunctions. In this review, we have analyzed the role of SVI in the development of obesity and its association with the genesis of CV dysfunctions. We have emphasized the role of lifestyle modification and pharmacological therapy in restoring the sympathovagal balance and its link to prevent the occurrence of CV diseases in overweight and obese individuals.
  2,970 602 -
Importance of hormonal changes during the periparturition period in black Bengal goats
Sukanta Mondal, Archana Minj, Mohan Chandra Pathak, Devi Nandan Singh, Vijai Prakash Varshney
January-March 2014, 1(1):20-25
Background and Aim: The maintenance of pregnancy in livestock requires specific metabolic and functional changes between conception and the end of gestation, mediated through the interplay of hormones. The objectives of this study were to delineate the changes in plasma progesterone, estradiol, triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine (T 4 ), insulin, and cortisol concentrations during periparturient period in black Bengal goats and to elucidate the interrelationship between T 4 and cortisol in building up of the estradiol prior to parturition. Methods: The blood samples were collected on days −25, −20, −15, −10, and −5 with respect to the date of expected kidding, on the day of kidding (day 0) and also on days 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 postpartum. Plasma was separated and stored at −20΀C until assay of hormones by radioimmunoassay. Results: Plasma progesterone concentration declined from day − 25 abruptly to the day of kidding and remained at basal level up to day 25 postpartum; whereas, plasma estradiol concentration declined abruptly from the day of kidding to a lower level than that of prepartum. Plasma insulin concentration declined ( P < 0.05) abruptly from day − 15 to the day of kidding followed by increase by day 10 postpartum. Circulating cortisol concentrations decreased from day 25 prepartum to the day of kidding, but increased by day 15 th postpartum. Plasma T 3 and T 4 concentrations decreased from day 25 prepartum to the day of kidding which increased by day 25 postpartum. Conclusion: Plasma estradiol was positively correlated with cortisol and T 4 indicating that changes in cortisol and T 4 levels contribute to increase in estradiol prior to delivery and therefore may directly influence the process of parturition.
  3,183 298 -
Fitness scores of Indians assessed by the Harvard step test
Parul Sharma, Om Lata Bhagat, Anjum Datta, Sabyasachi Sircar
October-December 2014, 1(4):258-261
Background and Aim: The Harvard step test (HST) assesses the physical fitness of individuals. The standard 50.8 cm step of the HST is tailored to western anthropometrics and is rather high for the average Indian whose height is relatively less. Therefore, the height of the step is lower (41 cm) in the modified HST. Even so, it is unlikely that a single step-height will be appropriate for all Indians with different heights. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to verify the same in a group of Indian students with heights ranging from 1.45 to 1.83 m on 41 cm high step. Methods: This study was conducted on 74 healthy subjects in the age group of 17-22 years. Protocol comprises stepping up and down a 41 cm high step at a rate of 30 times/min for the duration, not >5 min. The total duration of stepping exercise and the post-exercise pulse count for 30 s after 1 min recovery was noted and used for calculating the physical fitness index (PFI). Results: The height of subjects positively and significantly correlated to the fitness score and also to the duration of exercise. The mean fitness scores of subjects with height ≥1.66 m were significantly higher than mean scores of subjects with height <1.66 m. Conclusion: The shorter duration of effort and the lower score in short subjects may be due to muscle fatigue rather than cardio-respiratory impairment. Our findings suggest that the height of the step used in the HST should be adjusted according to the height of the subject. Considering our small sample size, further studies are required to delineate the effect of step height on PFI in HST.
  2,921 391 -
Event related evoked potentials in pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia
Asha Yadav, Sarita Kanojia, Rashmi Babbar, Yedla Manikya Mala
April-June 2014, 1(2):142-147
Background and Aim: Preeclampsia is the most significant cause of neurocognitive disturbances in pregnancy. These symptoms may persist for many years after the index pregnancy even if the somatic symptoms of preeclampsia disappear. In the present study, we have assessed the early cognitive changes in preeclamptic females with the help of event related evoked potentials (EREPs). Methods: EREPs were recorded in 20 diagnosed patients of preeclampsia with the help of computerized evoked potential recorder using the standard auditory 'oddball' paradigm. An equal number of age and gestation matched healthy pregnant females served as controls. The latencies and amplitudes of different waves of EREPs in both the groups were analyzed by using student's unpaired T-test. Correlation of P3 (main tool for cognition assessment) with blood pressure parameters was done by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Latencies of waves N 2 and P 3 from frontal, central and parietal ( FzA 1 A 2 , CzA 1 A 2, and PzA 1 A 2 , respectively) were found to be significantly delayed in preeclamptic females when compared to their normal contemporizes. Neither latencies nor amplitudes of P 3 were found to be significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, or mean arterial pressure. Conclusion: Our results conclude that there are cognitive disturbances during the preeclamptic pregnancy. Prolonged latencies of EREP waves indicate that the cognitive functions such as information discrimination and reaction take longer time in preeclamptic patients when compared to their normal counterparts. This could be an electrophysiological manifestation of future memory loss in patients having preeclampsia.
  3,098 170 -
Importance of sample size in clinical trials
Ganesh S Kumar
January-March 2014, 1(1):10-12
Adequate sample size is an important issue in clinical trials. This article aimed to assess the effect of various factors on sample size and the importance of adequate sample size in clinical trials. Recent data pertinent to study objective was searched and collected from Pub-med and other sources were analysed. It was found that factors determining adequate sample size have paramount importance in assessing the accurate results, while less or more than the required sample size has many disadvantages. A researcher needs to focus on these issues while determining sample size in a clinical trial. Emphasizing and appropriate handling of all the concerned parameters related to sample size before initiating a clinical trial will improve the validity of the study.
  2,879 350 1
Glycemic load is critical for development of diabetes mellitus
Gopal Krushna Pal
October-December 2016, 3(4):153-154
  881 2,144 -
Impact of smoking status on autonomic functions assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability
Sultana Ferdousi, Mehboba Ferdous, Md. Saiful Islam
January-March 2014, 1(1):57-62
Background and Aim: Increased sympathetic activity associated with cigarette smoking has been recognized as a major independent risk factor for cardiac morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to assess and to differentiate cardiac autonomic activity by analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in apparently healthy male regular light, moderate and heavy cigarette smokers. Methods: This comparative analytical study conducted in apparently healthy male regular cigarette smokers with age between 20 to 55 years. They were divided into light, moderate and heavy smokers (n=40 in each group) according to the cumulative effect of smoking calculated by pack-years. For comparison, 70 apparently healthy male non-smoker subjects were studied as control. HRV data was recorded in a controlled laboratory environment by a multichannel polyrite. Statistical analysis of data among the groups was performed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Association of different variables with a ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power (LF-HF ratio) was done by Pearson correlation and multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the independent contribution of smoking status to LF-HF ratio. Results: Resting heart rate (HR) ( P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure ( P < 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ( P < 0.001) and rate pressure product (RPP) were found to be significantly high in all groups of smokers. Low frequency (LF) component, LF power expressed in normalized unit (LFnu) and LF-HF ratio were significantly ( P < 0.001) higher in all smokers than non-smokers and were also significantly high ( P < 0.05) in heavy smokers compared to light smokers. Total power, high frequency (HF) component and HF power expressed in normalized unit (HFnu) were found significantly ( P < 0.001) less in all smokers compared to control and were also significantly ( P < 0.05) low in heavy smokers compared to light smokers. HR and RPP in moderate smokers and DBP in light smokers showed a significant correlation with LF/HF ratio. LF/HF ratio showed significant and independent contribution to RPP in moderate smokers. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest cardiac autonomic dysfunction characterized by increased sympathetic activity with attenuated cardiac vagal modulation and shift of sympathovagal balance towards strong sympathetic dominance in regular cigarette smokers, that are more prominent in heavy smokers. Significant dose-response association between cumulative smoking exposure, deranged cardiac autonomic function and increased cardiovascular stress were found in smokers.
  2,620 282 2
Comparison of the effects of yoga and lifestyle modification on grade-I hypertension in elderly males: A preliminary study
Satish Gurunathrao Patil, Gopal Dhanakshirur, Manjunatha Ramakrishna Aithala, Kusal Kanti Das
January-March 2014, 1(1):68-72
Background and Aim: Aging along with hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. It is noticed that systolic hypertension in elderly is often associated with increased CV risks and is resistant to pharmacological treatment. Hence, we aimed to assess the difference between practice of yoga and lifestyle modifications (LSM) in elderly grade-I hypertensive males. Methods: A randomized control study was conducted on age and body mass index (BMI)-matched elderly male subjects ( n = 42) between 60-80 years with grade-I hypertension. They were equally divided into yoga group ( n = 21) and LSM group ( n = 21). Their fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were recorded before the intervention period, and both the groups were matched for these biochemical parameters. The yoga group was assigned for practice of a yoga module and the LSM group ( n = 21) was assigned for stretching exercises and brisk walk, for 6 days in a week, for 1 h in the morning for 6 weeks. Their CV parameters including heart rate and blood pressure (BP) were recorded before and after the intervention period. Results: We found a significant decrease in systolic BP ( P < 0.001), pulse pressure ( P < 0.001), mean arterial pressure ( P < 0.001), and rate pressure product ( P < 0.001) in elderly hypertensives following yoga therapy for 6 weeks, whereas no statistically significant change was noticed in the LSM group practicing stretching exercise and brisk walk for the same duration. Conclusion: Yoga intervention for 6 weeks could be an effective non-pharmacological means for better management than the LSM for control of BP in elderly subjects having grade-I hypertension.
  2,565 302 2
Gender difference on the effects of body mass index in prediction of spirometric reference values in healthy young Indian adults
Anindita Singha Roy, Ishita Bhattacharjee, Rishna Dalui, Sangita Pal, Amit Bandyopadhyay
January-March 2014, 1(1):73-75
Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in different populations have been reported from different parts of the globe. Owing to increased industrialization and changes in the anthropometric profile, it is essential to readdress the population-specific spirometric norms. Body mass index (BMI) is known to influence lung functions. Therefore, the present study was aimed to assess the gender difference on the effects of BMI in prediction of spirometric reference values in healthy young Indian adults. A total of 158 university students (90 males and 68 females) were randomly sampled from the University of Calcutta, India. PFTs were measured in all subjects using expirograph. There was no significant difference in age between males and females. Significant gender variation was found in vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1s, forced expiratory flow and peak expiratory flow rate. BMI depicted significant correlation with VC in males. On the basis of existence of such significant correlations, regression equations were computed to predict PFTs from BMI. To conclude, the study indicated a significant gender variation in the normal values of the PFTs. BMI was negatively correlated with VC in males, and the level of BMI showed better prediction of pulmonary function in male subjects.
  2,527 335 1
Analysis of Poincare plot of heart rate variability in the assessment of autonomic dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome
Kuppusamy Saranya, Gopal Krushna Pal, Syed Habeebullah, Pravati Pal
January-March 2015, 2(1):34-39
Background and Aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) due to its constant association with obesity poses a significant cardiovascular (CV) risk. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been a noninvasive marker of autonomic dysfunction and CV risk. This study was designed to assess the nonlinear dynamics of HRV using Poincare plot in patients with PCOS and elucidate its importance in predicting the CV risk. Methods: A total of 45 women with newly diagnosed PCOS and 45 controls were recruited for the study. Waist-hip ratio, body mass index (BMI), basal CV parameters such as basal heart rate (BHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and rate pressure product (RPP) were recorded. HRV analysis was done using both linear (time domain and frequency domain) and nonlinear measures (Poincare plot). Results: The cases had increased basal heart rate, BMI, SBP, DBP, MAP, and RPP. In linear measures of HRV, the total power (TP), which depicts overall HRV was reduced, and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency (LF-HF) was significantly increased in cases. In nonlinear measures, the standard descriptors (SD1 and SD2) and area of the ellipse (S) were decreased, which signifies decreased HRV. There was a significant correlation of linear measures (TP, LF-HF ratio) and nonlinear measures (SD1, SD2, S) with elevated RPP. Both linear and nonlinear measures had independent contribution to elevated RPP, observed from regression analysis. Conclusion: Decreased HRV and autonomic dysfunctions in the form of increased sympathetic drive and decreased vagal activity were observed in PCOS patients that may herald CV risks. Poincare plot analysis can independently quantify the magnitude of autonomic dysfunction in PCOS.
  2,528 307 2
Association of sympathovagal imbalance with arterial stiffness indices in women with risk factors for pregnancy-induced hypertension in first and third trimesters of gestation
Manivannan Subha, Pravati Pal, Gopal Krushna Pal, Syed Habeebullah, Chandrasekaran Adithan, MG Sridhar
April-June 2014, 1(2):113-119
Background and Aim: Though contribution of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) to arterial stiffness indices (ASI), and markers of CV risk in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) has been reported, their association during early trimesters of gestation in PIH has not been studied. Therefore, in the present study, we have investigated the association of SVI with ASI in pregnant women with risk factors for PIH during their first and third trimesters of gestation. Methods: Blood pressure (BP), rate-pressure product (RPP), spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), and arterial stiffness indices (ASI) were assessed in subjects of control group (normal pregnant women without having risk for PIH, n = 50) and study group (pregnant women with risk factors for PIH, n = 50). Independent association of LF:HF ratio to the various parameters were determined using multiple regression analysis. Results: It was observed that the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power (LF-HF ratio) of HRV, the sensitive indicator of SVI was significantly high in study group subjects starting from first trimester of pregnancy. SVI could be due to both sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal. ASI was found to be significantly high in study group subjects compared to that of controls. LF-HF ratio had significant correlation and independent association with RPP (the marker of CV risk) and ASI. Conclusion: SVI is associated with arterial stiffness in pregnant women having risk factors for PIH. SVI and increased arterial stiffness could contribute to CV risks in pregnant women with risk factors for PIH.
  2,406 380 1